Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic contaminants by organisms into smaller compounds. Many microorganisms have shown diverse capacities to degrade the organic contaminants
Biotransformation is biological modification of parent compounds using enzymes. Valuable materials could be produced during the reactions
Geomicrobiology can be applied to bioremediation of heavy metals, metalloids, and radionuclides through microbial interactions leading to transformation and biomineralization
Study of aquatic microbiology currently focuses on ecology and antibiotics resistance of pathogenic bacteria in river and coastal to monitor or track seasonal patterns of them.